Performance improvements in SQL Server 2014

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SQL Server 2014 will be an amazing release regarding all the various performance enhancements that are part of this new release. Over the last months I have already done a huge amount of work and tests on the latest CTP version of SQL Server 2014, and I have already blogged about my experience. In this blog posting I want to give you an overview about the various performance related enhancements that are introduced.

If you are interested in a more personal face-2-face training about performance enhancements in SQL Server 2014, I’m also running in May & June around Europe my one-day long SQL Server 2014 Performance Tuning Day, where you will learn the nifty details about this various enhancements.

Buffer Pool Extensions

The idea about Buffer Pool Extensions is very easy: expand the Buffer Pool with a paging file that is stored on very fast storage, like SSD drives. The Buffer Pool Extensions are coming quite handy, if you don’t have the ability to physically add more additional RAM to your database server.

Resource Governor

Resource Governor was introduced first back with SQL Server 2008, but wasn’t really a mature technology, because you had no possibility to govern I/O operations on the storage level, and you also had no chance to limit the size of the Buffer Pool for a specific workload group. With SQL Server 2014 things are changing, because you can now throttle I/O operations. Limiting Buffer Pool usage is still not possible, but hey who knows what comes in SQL Server 2016 ;-).

Lock Priorities

As you might know, SQL Server gives you in the Enterprise Edition Online operations, or as I call them “Almost Online Operations”. They are almost online, because internally SQL Server still has to acquire some locks, which can lead to blocking situations. For that reason SQL Server 2014 introduces Lock Priorities, where you can control how SQL Server should react, if such a blocking situation occurs.

Clustered ColumnStore Indexes

One of the hottest enhancements in SQL Server 2014 is the introduction of Clustered ColumnStore Indexes, which is an amazingly new way concept how to deal with ColumnStore data in SQL Server. And in addition the Clustered ColumnStore Index can be also changed directly – without using tricks like Partition Switching.

In-Memory OLTP

With In-Memory OLTP Microsoft claims that the performance of your workload can be improved up to 100x. Awesome! Everything is now stored directly in the memory, without touching your physical storage anymore (besides the transaction log, if you want). And in addition In-Memory OLTP is based on so-called Lock Free Data Structures, means locking, blocking, latching, and spinlocking is just gone. Of course, there are side-effects and even limitations with this promising approach…

Delayed Transactions

It doesn’t matter how good the throughput of your workload is, the final barrier and bottleneck is almost every time the transaction log. Because of the Write-Ahead Logging mechanism used by SQL Server, a transaction must be always written physically to the transaction log, before the transaction is committed. When your transaction log is on slow storage, your performance and throughput will suffer. For that reason SQL Server 2014 implements so-called Delayed Transactions

Cardinality Estimation

Cardinality Estimation is the most important thing in a relational database, because these estimations are feeded into the Query Optimizer, whose job it is to produce a good-enough execution plan. With SQL Server 2014 Microsoft has rewritten the cardinality estimator completely from scratch to overcome some limitations based on the history of this very important component.

Thanks for reading

-Klaus

2 Comments

  • We have been using BPE on our production BI server since the start of March. Our BI server is hosted in AWS, and we have specified a 400GB file that lives on local SSD for an instance with 45GB max memory. This file now takes between 85% to 95% of all bufferpool IO (depending on workload) and has significantly improved the performance of this server.

    If you can get a BPE file on SSD then I recommend that you do so. It can take 2 or 3 days to get fully populated, but immediate side effect is that the performance of your database disks becomes less important.

    The only downside we have seen from the BPE comes at DB restore or DB detach, as there can be an unexpected wait while the BPE is flushed of pages for the affected DB.

  • Nice summary!

    One performance feature I am very much looking forward to is Incremental Statistics, which allows you to update statistics on a partition level, rather than the whole table.

    Still has some limitations as a feature, but before this I would always have to go down the custom built partitions (with a Partitioned View combining all underlying tables), rather than the Paritioned Function/Schema route.

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